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Net Profit Ratio (NP Ratio):

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Net profit ratio (NP ratio) expresses the relationship between net profit after taxes and sales. This ratio is a measure of the overall profitability net profit is arrived at after taking into account both the operating and non-operating items of incomes and expenses. The ratio indicates what portion of the net sales is left for the owners after all expenses have been met.


Following formula is used to calculate net profit ratio:

Net profit ratio = (Net profit after tax / Net sales) 100

It is expressed in percentage. Higher the net profit ratio, higher is the profitability of the business.


From the following information calculate net profit ratio (NP ratio)

Total sales = $520,000; Sales returns = $ 20,000;  Net profit $40,000

Net sales = (520,000 20,000) = 500,000

Net Profit Ratio = [(40,000 / 500,000) 100]

= 8%


Net profit ratio is used to measure the overall profitability and hence it is very useful to proprietors. The ratio is very useful as if the net profit is not sufficient, the firm shall not be able to achieve a satisfactory return on its investment.

This ratio also indicates the firm's capacity to face adverse economic conditions such as price competition, low demand, etc. Obviously, higher the ratio the better is the profitability. But while interpreting the ratio it should be kept in mind that the performance of profits also be seen in relation to investments or capital of the firm and not only in relation to sales.

More study material from this to

More study material from this topic:

Meanings, Nature and Usefulness of Ratios Analysis
Interpretation of Ratios
Important Factors for Understanding Ratios Analysis
Significance and Usefulness Ratios Analysis
Classification of Ratios
Analysis of Short Term Financial Position or Test of Liquidity
Current Ratio
Quick/Acid Test/Liquid Ratio
Absolute Liquid Ratio
Inventory/Stock Turnover Ratio
Debtors / Receivable Turnover Ratio
Creditors / Payables Turnover Ratio
Working Capital Turnover Ratio
Profitability Ratios
Gross Profit Ratio (GP Ratio)
Operating Profit Ratio
Net profit ratio (NP ratio)
Earnings Per Share Ratio
Operating ratio
Expense ratio
Solvency ratios - Test of Long Term Solvency
Debt-equity Ratio
Debt Service Ratio or Interest Coverage Ratio
Fixed Assets Ratio
Debts to Total Funds or Solvency Ratio
Reserves to Capital Ratio
Capital Gearing Ratio
Proprietary Ratio
Accounting Ratios Formulas
Limitations of Ratios Analysis




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