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Subdivision of Journal:

Definition of Subdivision:

In a large business concern a journal is divided into parts so that several clerk could work at the same time. This is known as subdivision of journal.

Purpose of Subdivision:

In small concerns only one journal and one ledger may serve the purpose, because the number of transactions is very small. But in large business concerns the number of transactions are numerous, just one journal and one ledger will not do the job. That will cause much inconvenience i.e., if we have only one journal in a large scale business, it is not possible for one bookkeeper to record all the transactions in time. On the other hand, it will not be possible for more than one person to use the same journal simultaneously with the result that the accounting work will fall in arrear.

There are some more factors which necessitate the use of more than one subsidiary book (journal):

  1. If all the transactions are recorded in one book (journal), the book will be very large, bulky, and difficult to handle.

  2. If one bookkeeper is asked to record all the transactions, the possibility of errors and mistakes will be great. It will also create opportunities for committing fraud.

  3. If all the transactions are recorded in one book, it will be difficult to trace out a particular transaction in future.

How Many Journals A Business Should Have?

We know that different types of transactions take place in a business concern. Some transactions take place repeatedly (hundreds to thousands times in a year) and some transactions take place once or twice in a year. Obviously, it is not logical to provide a separate journal for transactions which rarely take place.

For this purpose different groups of transactions are made and a separate book is provided for each group. Each group is consisted of similar types of transactions. Journal is mainly divided into two:

  1. Special journal

  2. General journal

Special Journal:

By special journal we mean, a journal in which transactions relating to a certain special group or recorded. Special journal is again subdivided into eight groups:

  1. Purchases book or purchases journal

  2. Sales book or sales journal

  3. Purchases returns book or purchases returns journal

  4. Sales returns book or sales returns journal

  5. Bills receivable book

  6. Bills payable book

  7. Cash book or cash journal

  8. Petty cash book

General Journal:

The transactions which do not fall with in the scope of above mentioned books, are recorded in this journal e.g. purchase of an asset on credit, depreciation on assets, expenses payable, bad debts etc. It is also known as journal proper, Modern journal or principle journal. Some authors call it only "journal".

The main function of the above books is to supply necessary information to the ledger. All the transactions are posted in the ledger on the basis of information available from these books, so these books are called subsidiary books

Advantages of Subdivision of Journal:

The following advantages are derived from division of journal:

  1. Because of subdivision the books cannot be bulky and hence there will be no difficulty in handling them.

  2. Accounting work is divided amongst a large number of employees. So work is done nicely and promptly and no work is left in arrear.

  3. Each employee can be held responsible for mistakes committed by him. This serves as caution and care to the employees.

  4.  The efficiency of the employees increases because of the division of labor.

  5. By keeping the book under the custody of different employees the chances of fraud and defalcation are minimized.

Relevant Articles:

What is Subdivision of journal
Purchases Journal
Sales Journal
Purchases Returns Journal
Sales Returns Journal
Special Journal Quiz

 

 

A D V E R T I S E M E N T

 

Financial Accounting Topics


  Introduction to Accounting
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  Transactions and Accounting Equation
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  Analysis of Business Transactions
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  Journal, Ledger and Trial Balance
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  Accounting for Bills of Exchange
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  Special Journals
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  Cash Book
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Bank Reconciliation Statement
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  Final Accounts
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  Work Sheet
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  Capital and Revenue Items
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  Valuation of Inventories
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  Accounts of Non-profit Making Organizations
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  Statement of Cash Flows
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  Accounting Ratios Analysis
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  Depreciation, Provisions and Reserves
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  Accounting Dictionary
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  Financial Calculators
 
 
 
Managerial Accounting Topics

  Financial Statements
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  Cost Volume Profit Relationship
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  Variable Costing System
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  Materials and Inventory Cost Control
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  Activity Based Costing System
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  Standard Costing and Variance Analysis
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  Balanced Scorecard
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  Capital Investment Analysis/Capital Budgeting
 

 

 

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